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Why immutability is important

Immutability is a fancy term for not changing the properties in an object, ever.

In JavaScript, we're used to changing objects all the time:

let obj = { x: 10 };
obj.x = 20;
// freeze, immutability police! 🚨

That includes using array methods that change the array, such as push:

let arr = [1, 2, 3];

Instead, what if whenever you want to change anything about an object, you return a new object, with the changes in it?

let obj = { x: 10 };
let new_obj = { ...obj, x: 20 }; // immutabile

let arr = [1, 2, 3];
let new_arr = [...arr, 4]; // Also immutable

You'll naturally ask yourself why you'd want to favor this unfamiliar way of doing things.

It's a bit like having too many cooks making a dish. Changing an object you've already sent places, or from several places on a whim, may cause bugs that are harder to trace and areas of your apps silently falling out of sync.

But there's a more subtle reason why you want to favor immutability, especially when working with React:

Sending new objects whenever anything about them changes makes it easy to tell that they've changed, without having to look deep into their bowels.

It's faster to tell that obj !== new_obj than figuring out if anything inside the object has been altered.

This is how React.PureComponent tells that it needs to re-render: it looks wether any of its props have shallowly changed by comparing the stored values with the newly-received values, which is a fast way of avoiding useless renders.

Thinking immutably

When shifting to the immutable mindset, we need to drop some of our old habits and embrace some new ones.

Updating objects

Whenever you want to change the value of a property in an object, instead of doing obj.some_property = new_value, you return a new object by extending the original object and adding in the new value.

This can be done in two main ways:

The two methods are shown below:

let obj = { x: 10, y: 20 };

// Using Object.assign() method...
let new_obj = Object.assign({}, obj, { y: 30 });

// ...or the Spread syntax
let new_obj = { ...obj, y: 30 };

When you update a value deep into the object, you spread your way to the property you want to update:

let obj = {
name: 'John Doe',
occupation: 'React Novice',
avatar: {
type: 'gravatar',
data: {
email: '',
size: 100

// Let's update our user's email address using the Spread syntax
let new_email = {
avatar: {
data: {,
email: ''

...or, of course, use the Object.assign() equivalent.

Updating arrays

In JavaScript, array methods work by either returning a new array, or update the array in-place. To work immutably, we need to stick to the former, and find immutable equivalents to the latter.

Out of the immutable methods, you'll mostly be using:

In contrast, keep an eye for methods that change the array in-place, and use immutable equivalents:

Array.push and Array.unshift add elements to the array. Instead, you can use Array.concat:

let arr = [1, 2, 3];

// Instead of...

let new_arr = arr.concat([4]); // or [...arr, 4]

// Instead of...

let new_arr = [0].concat(arr); // or [0, ...arr];

Array.pop, Array.shift, and Array.splice are used to remove elements from an array. Use Array.slice and Array.concat to obtain the same result:

let arr = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

// Instead of...

let new_arr = arr.slice(0, arr.length - 1);

// Instead of...

let new_arr = arr.slice(1);

// Instead of...

let new_arr = arr.slice(0, index).concat(arr.slice(index + 1));

// Instead of...
arr.splice(index, 1, value);

let new_arr = arr.slice(0, index).concat([value], arr.slice(index));
let arr = [3, 2, 1];

// Instead of...

let new_arr = arr.slice().sort();

When you have an array of objects, and you want to change something about one of these objects, you return a new array containing the original objects, plus the updated version of your object:

let contacts = [
{ name: 'Alice', email: '' },
{ name: 'Bob', email: '' },
{ name: 'Carol', email: '' }

let updated_contacts = => {
if ( === 'Bob') {
return {,
email: ''
} else {
return contact;

In the example above, we map our way to a new array that contains:


You might be concerned that embracing the immutable way of dealing with data comes with a performance penalty. Reader, you are right.

Creating new objects and arrays all the time is more expensive than plain-old mutation. The popular Immutable.js library tries to bring immutable structures closer to their mutable counterparts in terms of efficiency — consider using it if you're concerned about speed.

But otherwise revel in this much cleaner way of dealing with data, and in the fact that by using immutable structures and smartly-deployed PureComponents, you may actually be boosting your app's performace.